When faced with a new task, I prefer to Think about it first Ask for help Dig in and see what happens. Take your skills to the next level No matter where you're starting from, we've got what you need to power your potential. In the event that a woman dies while on a maternity leave, the father of her child is eligible to receive the benefits of maternity leave. The difference between the bid and ask prices widens for example from 0 to 1 pip to 1—2 pips for currencies such as the EUR as you go down the levels of access.
Production stopped in and has resumed. The company had to invest at least 20 million euro in the first three years and to employ 1, at the end of the first year.
Ferronikeli ore mining and metallurgical complex was set up in to produce ferro-nickel for exports. It produced and exported 6, tonnes a year of nickel, in ferro-nickel ingots, before the s but since it has been idle. Ferronikeli has three open pit mines: Ferronikeli now is one of the main exporters of Kosovo. A chain of Alpine-type chromite pods in southwestern Kosovo are part of a series of linear deposits that continue into Albania. These pods are small but of high grade and in Albania are known to possess enhanced levels of platinum group metals PGM.
From the end of World War Two until , the ores were worked, primarily from the Djakova mine by Deva holding company, and direct-shipping ore was sent to Albania for treatment.
This ceased when the plant was closed in No meaningful exploration for chrome has been undertaken for several decades. Kosovo's bauxite deposits are hosted in karst limestone and have been exploited in a series of pits that comprise the Grebnik mine. The host limestone was worked as a construction material and a sizeable stockpile of broken limestone remains on site.
Mining began in and ceased in , owing to the deteriorating political climate in Kosovo. Total production was 2. The traditional markets for bauxite from Grebnik were Romania, Germany and Russia. Both were originally worked as quarries and both moved to underground operations prior to their closure in Before , the Golesh operation produced , t of magnesite, 22, t of sintered magnesia and 10, t of caustic calcined magnesia per annum.
Golesh mine is accessed via a shaft, whereas Strezovc is accessed via a horizontal adit in the hillside. Both mines have recently been put up for privatisation. For further information on the privatisation process, visit: Kosovo is rich in high quality construction minerals, such as andesite, basalt, diabas, gabbro, granite, limestone and marble. Wine has always historically produced in Kosovo, both red and white.
Currently the wine industry is successful and growing after the war in the s. The main heartland of Kosovo's wine industry is in Orahovac Rahoveci where millions of litres of wine is produced. The main wines produced in Kosovo include pinot noir , merlot and chardonnay. Kosovo has recently been exporting wines to Germany and the United States. Kosovo is a small open economy and mainly imports more goods and services than it exports. It is committed to trade liberalization. Participation in regional and wider trade facilitating mechanisms has been one of the main policy objectives of Kosovo institutions.
Enhancing trade in Kosovo through liberalized trade requires three aspects to be in place, import rationalization and replacement, trade facilitation and export promotion. This is the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development integrated export strategy which gives equal importance to competitiveness in the domestic market and competitiveness in the foreign market. This was a 7.
One of the worst problem faced by Kosovo is the negative trade balance, this is made worse by the high level of informal economic activity and an uncontrolled black market , led by illegal groups in northern Kosovo. Exports are dominated mainly by raw materials. Kosovo's liberal trade regime is characterized by simplicity and neutrality, key features considered to be important for stimulating private sector led growth as well as creating the conditions for healthy exports. But as trade liberalization has not been accompanied by an improvement in the competitiveness of the emerging domestic production sectors, Kosovo is facing a huge trade deficit.
Commercial banks operating in Kosovo marked their highest profit since their establishment. During , the eight commercial banks operating in the country's financial markets have recorded together a profit of over 37 million Euros. The first recorded a profit of The total net value of loans granted by commercial banks listed on 31 December amounted to 1. Meanwhile, in , the net value of loans granted by commercial banks was 1. During , lending increased by million Euros. The value of deposits during has increased by million Euros, reaching a total of 2.
The program is to provide loan guarantees to six Kosovo banks to issue loans to farmers and agricultural businesses, increasing lending to a sector that is constrained by lack of access to credit.
Because of the still unclear political situation, Kosovo does not have its own international prefix code. Telenor and Telekom Srbija Serbian operators used to have coverage in Pristina and some other little areas of Kosovo, but their towers have been dismantled in the independent territory, so that GSM coverage is now offered only by the two local operators. In the first mobile virtual network operator appeared in Kosovo. Vala has over From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Population below poverty line.
Foreign direct investments in Kosovo. Electrical energy in Kosovo. These are also known as "foreign exchange brokers" but are distinct in that they do not offer speculative trading but rather currency exchange with payments i. The volume of transactions done through Foreign Exchange Companies in India amounts to about USD 2 billion  per day This does not compete favorably with any well developed foreign exchange market of international repute, but with the entry of online Foreign Exchange Companies the market is steadily growing.
These are typically located at airports and stations or at tourist locations and allow physical notes to be exchanged from one currency to another.
They access the foreign exchange markets via banks or non bank foreign exchange companies. There is no unified or centrally cleared market for the majority of trades, and there is very little cross-border regulation.
Due to the over-the-counter OTC nature of currency markets, there are rather a number of interconnected marketplaces, where different currencies instruments are traded. This implies that there is not a single exchange rate but rather a number of different rates prices , depending on what bank or market maker is trading, and where it is.
In practice, the rates are quite close due to arbitrage. A joint venture of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and Reuters , called Fxmarketspace opened in and aspired but failed to the role of a central market clearing mechanism. Banks throughout the world participate.
Currency trading happens continuously throughout the day; as the Asian trading session ends, the European session begins, followed by the North American session and then back to the Asian session. Fluctuations in exchange rates are usually caused by actual monetary flows as well as by expectations of changes in monetary flows.
Major news is released publicly, often on scheduled dates, so many people have access to the same news at the same time. However, the large banks have an important advantage; they can see their customers' order flow.
Currencies are traded against one another in pairs. The first currency XXX is the base currency that is quoted relative to the second currency YYY , called the counter currency or quote currency. The market convention is to quote most exchange rates against the USD with the US dollar as the base currency e. On the spot market, according to the Triennial Survey, the most heavily traded bilateral currency pairs were:.
Trading in the euro has grown considerably since the currency's creation in January , and how long the foreign exchange market will remain dollar-centered is open to debate. Until recently, trading the euro versus a non-European currency ZZZ would have usually involved two trades: The following theories explain the fluctuations in exchange rates in a floating exchange rate regime In a fixed exchange rate regime, rates are decided by its government:.
None of the models developed so far succeed to explain exchange rates and volatility in the longer time frames. For shorter time frames less than a few days , algorithms can be devised to predict prices. It is understood from the above models that many macroeconomic factors affect the exchange rates and in the end currency prices are a result of dual forces of demand and supply.
The world's currency markets can be viewed as a huge melting pot: No other market encompasses and distills as much of what is going on in the world at any given time as foreign exchange. Supply and demand for any given currency, and thus its value, are not influenced by any single element, but rather by several.
These elements generally fall into three categories: Internal, regional, and international political conditions and events can have a profound effect on currency markets.
All exchange rates are susceptible to political instability and anticipations about the new ruling party. Political upheaval and instability can have a negative impact on a nation's economy. For example, destabilization of coalition governments in Pakistan and Thailand can negatively affect the value of their currencies.
Similarly, in a country experiencing financial difficulties, the rise of a political faction that is perceived to be fiscally responsible can have the opposite effect.
Market psychology and trader perceptions influence the foreign exchange market in a variety of ways:. A spot transaction is a two-day delivery transaction except in the case of trades between the US dollar, Canadian dollar, Turkish lira, euro and Russian ruble, which settle the next business day , as opposed to the futures contracts , which are usually three months.
Spot trading is one of the most common types of Forex Trading. Often, a forex broker will charge a small fee to the client to roll-over the expiring transaction into a new identical transaction for a continuation of the trade.
This roll-over fee is known as the "Swap" fee. One way to deal with the foreign exchange risk is to engage in a forward transaction. In this transaction, money does not actually change hands until some agreed upon future date. A buyer and seller agree on an exchange rate for any date in the future, and the transaction occurs on that date, regardless of what the market rates are then.
The duration of the trade can be one day, a few days, months or years. Usually the date is decided by both parties. Then the forward contract is negotiated and agreed upon by both parties.
NDFs are popular for currencies with restrictions such as the Argentinian peso. In fact, a Forex hedger can only hedge such risks with NDFs, as currencies such as the Argentinian Peso cannot be traded on open markets like major currencies. The most common type of forward transaction is the foreign exchange swap. In a swap, two parties exchange currencies for a certain length of time and agree to reverse the transaction at a later date. These are not standardized contracts and are not traded through an exchange.
A deposit is often required in order to hold the position open until the transaction is completed. Futures are standardized forward contracts and are usually traded on an exchange created for this purpose.
The average contract length is roughly 3 months. Futures contracts are usually inclusive of any interest amounts. Currency futures contracts are contracts specifying a standard volume of a particular currency to be exchanged on a specific settlement date.
Thus the currency futures contracts are similar to forward contracts in terms of their obligation, but differ from forward contracts in the way they are traded. They are commonly used by MNCs to hedge their currency positions.
In addition they are traded by speculators who hope to capitalize on their expectations of exchange rate movements. A foreign exchange option commonly shortened to just FX option is a derivative where the owner has the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date.
The FX options market is the deepest, largest and most liquid market for options of any kind in the world. Controversy about currency speculators and their effect on currency devaluations and national economies recurs regularly.
Economists, such as Milton Friedman , have argued that speculators ultimately are a stabilizing influence on the market, and that stabilizing speculation performs the important function of providing a market for hedgers and transferring risk from those people who don't wish to bear it, to those who do. Large hedge funds and other well capitalized "position traders" are the main professional speculators. According to some economists, individual traders could act as " noise traders " and have a more destabilizing role than larger and better informed actors.
Currency speculation is considered a highly suspect activity in many countries. He blamed the devaluation of the Malaysian ringgit in on George Soros and other speculators.
Gregory Millman reports on an opposing view, comparing speculators to "vigilantes" who simply help "enforce" international agreements and anticipate the effects of basic economic "laws" in order to profit. In this view, countries may develop unsustainable economic bubbles or otherwise mishandle their national economies, and foreign exchange speculators made the inevitable collapse happen sooner.
A relatively quick collapse might even be preferable to continued economic mishandling, followed by an eventual, larger, collapse. Mahathir Mohamad and other critics of speculation are viewed as trying to deflect the blame from themselves for having caused the unsustainable economic conditions. Risk aversion is a kind of trading behavior exhibited by the foreign exchange market when a potentially adverse event happens which may affect market conditions.
This behavior is caused when risk averse traders liquidate their positions in risky assets and shift the funds to less risky assets due to uncertainty. In the context of the foreign exchange market, traders liquidate their positions in various currencies to take up positions in safe-haven currencies, such as the US dollar.
An example would be the Financial Crisis of The value of equities across the world fell while the US dollar strengthened see Fig. Albania km, Macedonia km, Montenegro 79 km, Serbia km Climate: Southeast Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia Coastline: Kosovar Albanian , Kosovac Serbian adjective: Kosovar Albanian , Kosovski Serbian note: Kosovan, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective.
Diplomatic representation from the US: Independence Day, 17 February Suffrage: Republic of Kosovo conventional short form: Kosovo local long form: Republika e Kosoves Republika Kosova local short form: Kosova Kosovo Political parties and leaders: Pristina Prishtine, Prishtina geographic coordinates: Supreme Court; district courts; municipal courts note: GDP purchasing power parity: GDP official exchange rate: Distribution of family income - Gini index: Inflation rate consumer prices: GDP - composition by sector: Over the past few years Kosovo's economy has shown significant progress in transitioning to a market-based system and maintaining macroeconomic stability, but it is still highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance.
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